Janka Hardness Illustration
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Janka Hardness Scale for Hardwood Flooring

Graduated Comparison Chart

The Janka hardness test was designed to rate the relative hardness of wood (on a scale of 0 to 4000). The test involves measuring the force required to embed a .444″ steel ball into wood to half its diameter. It is one of the best ways to determine the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear; and for that reason, one of the most common uses of the Janka hardness scale is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring. It is also a good indicator of how difficult it is to saw or nail hardwood flooring of a given species. Red Oak is the benchmark of the Janka scale. All other species are compared to it.

The following comparison chart illustrates the relative hardness of various species of wood flooring using the Janka scale. The grades are arranged from hardest to softest, and the number on the right is the Janka rating for that particular grade of hardwood flooring. Species marked with an asterisk (*) are domestic (U.S.) species; all others are exotic species. To learn more about grades of flooring available for a particular species, click on its name. Also, see our species-specific Janka scale for a more comprehensive text-only view of the ratings.

  0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Patagonian Rosewood 3840
Redland Rose 3840
Brazilian Ebony 3692
Brazilian Walnut 3684
Brazilian Teak 3540
Tiete Rosewood 3280
Brazilian Redwood 3190
Bloodwood 2900
Tiete Chestnut 2700
Austr. Red Mahogany 2697
Brazilian Cherry 2350
Santos Mahogany 2200
Para Rosewood 2100
Karri 2030
Sydney Blue Gum 2023
Bubinga 1980
Amendoim 1912
Jarrah 1910
Canarywood 1860
Purpleheart 1860
Tigerwood 1850
Hickory* 1820
Yellowheart 1820
Bolivian Rosewood 1780
Padauk 1725
Australian Beech 1686
Brazilian Oak 1650
Wenge 1630
Zebrawood 1575
Timborana 1570
Sapele 1510
Hard Maple* 1450
White Oak* 1360
Tasmanian Oak 1350
Ash* 1320
Beech* 1320
Red Oak* [benchmark] 1290
Birch* 1260
Royal Mahogany 1220
Cocobolo 1136
Rose River Gum 1125
Peruvian Walnut 1080
Walnut* 1010
Cherry* 950
Imbuia 950
Khaya 830
Genuine Mahogany 800
Sycamore* 770
Yellow Pine* 690
Douglas-fir* 660
Eastern White Pine* 420
  0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000

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The Janka hardness test is one of the best ways to determine the ability of a wood species to withstand denting and wear.

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